Hedges are important for wildlife as they provide shelter, nesting sites, and food sources for a diverse range of species, including birds, small mammals, insects, and amphibians. They act as wildlife corridors, allowing animals to move between habitats, contribute to biodiversity, and serve as breeding, fledging, and overwintering sites. Well-maintained hedges play a crucial role in supporting wildlife, helping to maintain healthy populations and genetic diversity while creating a mosaic of habitats within the landscape.
The best times for hedge cutting to minimize disturbance to nesting birds and other wildlife are generally during the late autumn and winter months, from late August to early March. This period avoids the main breeding season for most birds and mammals, reducing the risk of disturbing nesting animals. It’s important to check for active nests before trimming hedges and to postpone any cutting if nests are found. Additionally, if a hedge absolutely needs trimming during the breeding season, it’s advisable to conduct the work in small sections, allowing wildlife to relocate if necessary.
Checking for active nests before trimming hedges is crucial to avoid disturbing nesting birds and other wildlife. Before any hedge cutting or trimming, it’s important to visually inspect the hedge for signs of active nests, especially during the breeding season. If active nests are found, it’s essential to avoid any disturbance and postpone the trimming until the nesting period is over. Disturbing nesting birds can cause them to abandon their nests, leading to the loss of eggs or young chicks. It’s important to be aware that some species, such as birds of prey, are protected by law, and disturbing their nests can have legal implications.
If active nests are discovered, the following steps should be taken:
- Stop all trimming or cutting activities in the vicinity of the nest.
- Clearly mark the area to ensure that it is not disturbed.
- Postpone any trimming or cutting until the nesting period is over, typically from late August to early March, depending on the species and local regulations.
- Once the nesting period has passed, assess the situation carefully and proceed with trimming only if it is safe to do so without causing harm to the wildlife.
By being vigilant and taking appropriate action to protect active nests, it is possible to minimize disruption to nesting wildlife and contribute to the conservation of local bird populations.
Maintaining a wildlife-friendly hedge involves several key practices to create a more diverse and hospitable environment for wildlife. Here are some tips for managing a hedge to support wildlife:
- Varied Plant Species: Incorporate a diverse range of native plant species in the hedge to provide different food sources and habitats for wildlife. This can include berry-producing shrubs, flowering plants, and evergreen species to offer year-round resources for wildlife.
- Leave Untrimmed Areas: Intentionally leave some sections of the hedge untrimmed to provide cover and nesting sites for birds and small mammals. These areas can offer protection from predators and adverse weather conditions, creating a more diverse and natural habitat within the hedge.
- Avoid Pesticides: Minimize or eliminate the use of pesticides and herbicides near the hedge to protect the wildlife that relies on it. These chemicals can be harmful to insects, birds, and other animals that inhabit the hedge.
- Timing of Trimming: Schedule hedge trimming outside of the main breeding season for birds and mammals, typically from late August to early March, to avoid disturbing nesting wildlife. Additionally, carefully check for active nests before trimming and postpone any cutting if nests are found.
- Provide Water: If possible, create a water source near the hedge, such as a small pond or bird bath, to support wildlife, especially during dry periods.
- Maintenance of Hedgerow Trees: If the hedge includes trees, consider maintaining some of them as mature trees, as they can provide additional nesting sites and food sources for wildlife.
Native plant species are beneficial for wildlife in hedges because they have co-evolved with local wildlife, providing essential food, shelter, and nesting resources. These plants offer a diverse and natural food supply for insects, birds, and small mammals, while also creating suitable habitats for nesting, roosting, and hiding. Additionally, native species are better adapted to local conditions, promoting biodiversity and contributing to the overall health of the ecosystem. By using native plants, hedges can support local wildlife and help maintain a balanced and resilient environment.
There are numerous native plant species in the UK that are well-suited for hedgerows and can provide valuable resources for wildlife. Some suitable native plants for UK hedgerows include:
- Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna): A common and important hedgerow species, providing dense cover, nesting sites for birds, and abundant red berries that are valuable food for wildlife.
- Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa): Also known as sloe, blackthorn produces white flowers in early spring and provides a food source for birds and small mammals with its small, blue-black fruits.
- Dog Rose (Rosa canina): This native wild rose species produces pink or white flowers and red rose hips, which are a valuable food source for birds and small mammals.
- Elder (Sambucus nigra): Elder provides clusters of small, creamy-white flowers, followed by dark purple berries that are attractive to birds and insects.
- Field Maple (Acer campestre): A small, native deciduous tree, field maple provides shelter and nesting sites for birds and supports a wide range of insect species.
- Guelder Rose (Viburnum opulus): This species produces clusters of white flowers and bright red berries, which are important for birds and other wildlife.
- Hazel (Corylus avellana): Hazel produces catkins in early spring and edible nuts that are valuable for birds and small mammals.
Here are some additional tips for creating a wildlife-friendly garden:
- Provide Water Sources: Incorporate a bird bath, small pond, or shallow dish of water to offer drinking and bathing opportunities for birds, insects, and other wildlife.
- Create Habitat Diversity: Include a variety of habitats such as meadows, wildflower patches, shrubby areas, and trees to accommodate different wildlife species with varying habitat requirements.
- Avoid Chemical Pesticides: Minimize or eliminate the use of chemical pesticides and herbicides, as they can be harmful to wildlife. Instead, encourage natural pest control through the presence of beneficial insects and birds.
- Install Nesting Boxes and Wildlife Homes: Place nesting boxes for birds, bat boxes, and insect hotels to provide additional nesting and roosting sites for wildlife.
- Plant Native Flowers: Cultivate a diverse range of native wildflowers to attract pollinators such as bees, butterflies, and hoverflies, and provide nectar sources throughout the growing season.
- Leave Wild Areas: Allow some areas of the garden to grow wild, providing cover, food, and nesting sites for wildlife. This can include leaving leaf litter, fallen branches, and untended corners.
- Consider Night-Friendly Lighting: If using outdoor lighting, opt for fixtures that minimize light pollution and glare, as excessive artificial light can disrupt nocturnal wildlife behaviors.
- Support Wildlife in Winter: Plant winter-flowering plants and provide food sources such as bird feeders and seed heads from perennials to support wildlife during the colder months.
By maintaining hedges as wildlife habitats and considering the impact of hedge cutting on wildlife, we can support and enhance the ecological value of these important landscape features. By adopting these wildlife-friendly hedge cutting practices, you can contribute to the preservation of valuable habitats for a diverse range of species. Your efforts can make a positive impact on local biodiversity, creating a more welcoming environment for wildlife to thrive. Together, we can all play a part in supporting the natural world around us.